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01 A forró éghajlati övezet élővilága


Tropical zone


Tropical zone: belt around the Equator, between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn


Tropical rain forest


  • High temperature (25-28oC)
  • High humidity (precipitation min. 1500 mm)
  • Soil: poor (rain carries down)


  • Glossy, waxy leaves

Quick decomposition: bacteria, fungi

5 levels

  • Emergent layer: giant trees (50-60 m, buttress roots)
  • Canopy: stops a lot of light
  • Understory: smaller trees
  • Undergrowth: shrubs and bushes
  • Forest floor: darkness
  • + Epiphytes: Orchids, Bromelies
  • + Creepers: lianas

Dying forests

  • Wood cutting: less tree, less oxygen
  • Soil is destroyed by the rain (roots can not protect it, EROSION)



  • Small body
  • Brightly coloured feathers
  • Weak legs
  • Wings beat more than 50/sec
  • Long, specialized bills
  • Slender, tubular tongue to drink the sweet nectar

Howler monkeys

  • Relatively small trunk, long arms
  • Five-fingered hands, five-toed feet
  • Long, grasping tail
  • The loudest land animals
  • They are omnivores


  • 1,5-2 m long
  • Reddish-yellow coat with black doughnut-shaped spots
  • Round head, slim and strong body
  • Long tail
  • Padded feet, retractile claws
  • Good eyesight and hearing
  • Carnivore: good hunter


Tropical deciduous forests

Between 10o and 20o latitude


  • Less precipitation
  • Quite high temperature
  • 2 seasons: dry, wet


  • Deciduous trees: they leave their leaves when it is dry season
  • Less levels: trees are not so close to each other, more light – undergrowth is dense



  • Lives in Central and Western Africa
  • Long arms, short body, black hair
  • Naked face, fingers, palms, armpit, bottoms of their feet
  • They have opposable thumbs and toes nails, no claws, no tail
  • Bulbous molars: they are omnivores
  • Clever animals: often use tools

Nile crocodile

  • 5-6 m long reptile
  • Sharp, pointed teeth
  • They can close their nostrils
  • Powerful tail
  • Flaked skin
  • Carnivores
  • The heat of sun incubates their eggs
  • They guard their nest and eggs


Tropical grasslands: savannas

Rainfall: 250-750 mm/year

Soil: rich, thick humus layer

Plants: grasses are dominant

  • Elephant grass: 3 m
  • Fires: grasses can tolerate
  • Trees: alone or in groups

Baobab tree:

  • Trunk is thick, can store water, fire-resist


  • Usually stand in groups
  • Umbrella-shaped canopy



  • 2 m, 200 kg
  • Small head, long neck, long and strong legs (2 toes)
  • Black and white (male), brownish grey (female)
  • Runs quickly, can not fly


  • Hunting
  • Pasturage
  • Plowing of grasses


Antelopes: e.g. gnu

  • Long beard, curved horns
  • 2 toes
  • Live in herds
  • Ruminants


  • Short, striped black and white fur
  • Long hair on the neck: mane
  • Wrinkled molars: herbivores
  • Long, strong legs with hooves


  • Short, yellowish fur
  • Wide, rounded head
  • Male: brown mane
  • Powerful body and legs
  • Long tail with a tuft of hair
  • Retractable claws
  • Carnivores: sharp teeth, females hunt


Tropical deserts

Near the Tropic of Cancer and at the Tropic of Capricorn: Sahara, Australia, Kalahari


  • Temperature: 50oC at noon, 0oC at night
  • Precipitation: less than 200 mm/year


  • They are adapted to the dry and hot climate:
  • They collect and store water
  • They reduce water loss


  • Widespread roots: close to the surface of the ground (absorb water quickly)
  • Fleshy green stem: make and store food
  • Leaves are reduced: needle-like spikes (stop animals and give shadow)
  • Waxy layer: reduces water evaporation


  • Thick fur
  • Hump: stores fat
  • Long eyelashes, lockup nostrils: protect from sand
  • Webbed, padded feet
  • Tolerates lack of water for 10 days

Fennec fox

  • Light fur
  • Large ears with capillars (cooling system)
  • Hiding by day, moving by night
  • Big eyes