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06 A kültakaró, a mozgás és a kiválasztás

2014.04.09

 

Skin, moving, excretion
 
Skin
Roles:
                      Protection
                      Bordering
                      Connection with the environment
                      Storage
                      Sensation
                      Thermoregulation
                      Insulation
                      Excretion
Epidermis:
                      Epithelial cells
                      Horny layer: dead cells (keratin), waterproof
                      Pigment cells: protect against UV radiation (melanin)
Dermis
          Blood vessels, nerves, nerve ends
          Hair follicle: hair, sebaceous gland („oil”), erector muscle
          Sweat gland: thermoregulation
Subcutis
          Large vessels and nerves
          Fat: insulator, energy and vitamin store, mechanical protector
Skin problems
          Blackhead: hair follicle is blocked with oil, dust and bacteria
          Pimple: blackhead in inflammation
          Herpes: virus
          Wart: virus infection
          Birthmark: pigmented spots
          Skin cancer, melanoma: UV light!
          Water blister, blood blister: mechanical damage
 
 
Moving
Bones: passive, muscles: active
Bones
          Supporting, protecting, moving, making blood cells
Joints:
          Ligament
          Joint capsule
          Cartilage
          Synovial fluid
Main bones of the human body
Skull
„Brain-skull”
          frontal bone
          parietal bone
          occipital bone
          temporal bone
„Face-skull”
          nasal bone
          zygomatic bone
          maxilla
          mandibula
Backbone
          vertebrae
          cervical, thoracal, lumbal, sacral sections
Limbs and connections
Arm
          Shoulder blade
          Clavicle
          Humerus
          Ulna
          Radius
          Carpals
          Metacarpals
          Phalanges
Leg
          Pelvis
          Femur
          Patella
          Tibia
          Fibula
          Tarsals
          Metatarsals
          Phalanges
 
Muscles
Structure:
          Fascicle
          Muscle fibre
          Tendon
Main muscles of the human body:
          Trapezius
          Deltoid
          Pectoralis major
          Biceps and triceps brachii
          Abdominal muscles
          Gluteus maximus
 
 
Excretion
Role: homeostasis
                      Water balance
                      Osmotic conditions
                      Ionic balance
                      Excreting waste and poisoning substances
Parts:
                      Kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra
Kidney:
                      Cortex
                      Medulla
                      Renal pyramids
                      Pelvis
Nephron
                      Glomerulus: capillary
                      Bowman-capsule
                      Tubule
                      Collecting duct
Process:
                      Filtration: primary filtrate - blood plasma without proteins (180 l/d)
                      Reabsorption (water, ions, sugar)
                      Excretion: toxics, carbamide
                      Urine (1.5 l/d)
Problems
                      Kidney stones
                      Kidney failure
                      (dialysis)