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07 A gombák

 

FUNGI
 
Main role: decomposition
No chloroplast
Heterotrophic organisms:
          saprotrophs
          parasites
          symbionts
Stored substances: glycogen (like in animals) and oils (like in plants)
Cell wall: CHITIN
 
Structure
Thallus: made of filaments
Hypha: fungal filament
Mycelium: network of hyphae (tenyésztest)
Fruit body (termőtest): produces spores (cap, gills, stipe, collar, cup)
 
Reproduction
Asexual: budding (yeast)
Sexual: fusion of hyphae, ascus (8 spores, in ascomycete fungi) or basidium (4 spores, in basidiomycete fungi /club mushrooms/)
 
Roles and importance
Decomposition:
          Decomposing of dead organisms (with the bacteria)
          Fermentation: wine, beer, yoghurt, kefir, bread
Antibiotics: Penicillium (mold)
Symbionts: mikorrhiza
Parasites: athlete’s foot (lábgomba), powdery mildew (lisztharmat), Peronospora
 
Main groups
Molds
Sac fungi (Ascomycetes - tömlősgombák): yeast, cup fungi (csészegombák), morels (kucsmagombák)
Club fungi (Basidiomycetes – bazidiumos gombák):
Mushrooms (Champignon - csiperke, Chantarelle - rókagomba, Slippery Jack – vargánya, Death Cap – gyilkos galóca
 
Lichens
Fungi and photosynthetic organisms (green algae, cyanobacteria) in symbiosis
·         Algae, bacteria produce organic materials with photosynthesis
·         Fungi protect the photosynthetic cells and absorb water
Ecology and importance:
·         They tolerate cold and hot climate and drying out
·         They live all over the world in different habitats
·         Pioneer organisms: first step of the succession (soil formation)
·         They can’t tolerate sulphur dioxide and acid rain (indicator organisms!)