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Innate behaviour (instinct)
          Closed genetic program
          Automatic, environment doesn’t change it
          No feedback
Types of innate behaviour
          Reflex: knee jerk
          Taxis: frog and moving things (small: orientation, large: escape)
          Fixed action pattern: red squirrel and nut (hide without soil, too) – motivation, releaser
Learnt behaviour
          Environment has an impact
          Open genetic program
          Individual differences
          Helps to accomodate to the environment
Types of learned behaviour
          Imprinting: young animals learn the characteristics of their parents
          Habituation: non-threatening stimuli are partially or totally ignored
          Classical conditioning (conditioned reflex) (Pavlov): a neutral stimulus is associated to an important one (food – ring or food - light)
          Operant (instrumental) conditioning: activity – reinforcement (reward or punishment)
          Insight learning: chimpanzee, banana and boxes
Sender – code – signal – code – receiver
Visual communication
          Honeybee: dance shows the food source
          Peacock: large color tail feathers
          Firefly: light signals
          Birds: colour of nestling’s mouth
          Mammals: body signals (dog’s tail), facial expression
Acoustic communication
          Sound source (e.g.vocal chords) and hearing is needed
          Insects and amphibians: in reproduction
          Songbirds: reproduction, territorial behaviour
          Ultrasound: rodents, bats, dogs, whales
          Chimpanzee: 30-40 signals
          Humans: language
Chemical communication
          Feromon: chemical sign material, is produced by glands in the integument
          Smelling is needed
          Butterflies, moths
          Mammals: wolves (territorial signs)
          „Lifelihood” behaviour
          „Where am I?” „Where do I go?”
          Taxis: guided movement towards or away from the stimulus source
          Bats, dolphins: echolocation
          Birds: migration
Feeding behaviour:
          Herbivores: eat much and all day
          Carnivores: eat less and sometimes: eagle, bat, lion, wolf, etc.
Attack: to get the prey
Defence or escape
          Repelling effects: colours, feromons
Open community: hunger, danger
Closed communities:
          Colony: group of families (herds of bisons, seabirds)
          Large family: generations of a family live together (rats, elephants)
          „Insect state”: complex community, castes (queen, workers, soldiers (ants, termites)
Territory: defended area that contains a nest
Personal space: entering causes aggression
Reproductive behaviour
Choosing of the partner: acoustic or visual activities, fight
Courtship: to reduce the personal space
Parental care (fish, crocodiles, birds, mammals)