Ugrás a tartalomhoz Lépj a menübe
 


02 Az állatok teste

2014.04.09

 

Animal body
ANIMAL CELL
          Cytoplasm: keeps, contains the cell organs
          Cell membrane: borders and protects the cell, connectscslerocyte to the environment
          Nucleus: DNA (organizes, controls, reproduction)
          Endoplasmatic reticulum: syntethizes substances
          Golgi apparatus: modifies, packages, carries substances
          Lysosome: small vesicles with digestive enzymes
          Mitochondria: synthesis of ATP, „power station of the cell”
ANIMAL TISSUES
Tissue: cells with the same
          Properties
          Origin
          Job
Usually contains matrix
Epithelial tissue
          Cells rest on a basement membrane
Functions:
          Support and protection
          Detection
          Excretion
          Selective absorption
          Transport
Classification by structure
Simple: egyrétegű
          Squamous: laphám (endothel)
          Cuboidal: köbhám (in glands)
          Columnar: hengerhám (inner wall of the small intestine)
Stratified: többrétegű (epithelium in the human skin)
Pseudostratified: többmagsoros
          Ciliated: csillós (trachea, Fallopian tube)
Transitional: átmeneti (bladder)
Keratinized: (elszarusodó) the most apical layers (exterior) of cells are dead and lose their nucleus and cytoplasm, instead contain a tough, resistant protein called keratin.
Classification by function
          Protection: skin
          Sensation: eyes (retina)
          Secretion: sebaceous glands (oil glands)
          Absorption: small intestine
          Excretion: kidneys, sweat glands
Connective tissues
Matrix: non living material among the cells
Blood: liquid matrix, roles are transport and protection
Areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue): soft fibres, fills spaces between organs
Fibrous connective tissue (collagenous and elastic fibers): tendons and ligaments
Adipose tissue: stores fat (energy store, insulator, mechanical protector, stores ADEK vitamins)
Supporting tissues
Cartilage
          Hyaline cartilage: matrix is homogenous (nose, joints)
          White elastic cartilage: between the vertebrae
          Yellow elastic cartilage: ears, larynx, epiglottis
Bone
          Organic matrix: protein fibres (elastic)
          Inorganic matrix: ions, salts (rigid)
          Together: very strong
Muscle tissues
          Contraction: actin and myosine filaments slide closer to each other (60/1)
Types:
Smooth
          Is made of cells
          Medium force
          Slow contraction
          Involuntary controlled
          Slowly fatigues
          In the gut, uterus, bronchioles
Skeletal (striped)
          Is made of muscle fibres
          Strong
          Rapid contraction
          Voluntary control
          Fatigues rapidly
          Attached to the skeleton
Cardiac
          Branching fibres
          Strong
          Contracts rapidly
          Involuntary and self-generating control
          Fatigues very slowly
          In heart
Nervous tissue
          Controls and coordinates the activities of the body
          Specialised elongated cells transmit electrical impulses
          Parts: cells body (soma), nucleus, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, axon terminal button