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01 Bevezetés. Vírusok, prokarióták, egysejtű eukarióták

2014.04.09

 

Biology
Classification, viruses, bacteria
Biology: the study of life
          living organisms
          origin
          interactions
„Part-sciences”:
          Botany, zoology, anthropology, taxonomy, ecology, genetics
Taxonomy
Artifical classification: separating organisms into groups according to their differences (no real relationship!)
Natural classification: it is made by natural evolutionary relationships
Binomial system (Carl Linnaeus: Systema naturae).
          Genus name: Homo
          Species name: sapiens
Taxonomic ranks
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: sapiens
Species:
          Structure, properties, origin is the same
          Descendants are fertile
Subspecies
          Taxonomic ranks
          Subspecies („rassz”): group inside a species in nature
          Type („fajta”): artificial group, improved by breeding
          Levels of organization
          Elementary particle < atom < molecule < macromolecule < cell organ < cell < tissue < organ < organ system < organism = INDIVIDUAL < population < association < biom < biosphere
          Five Kingdoms
Viruses
Structure
          Protein coat
          Genetic material (DNA, RNA)
Virion: free virus, no life processes
Virus infection:
          Sticks on the cell membrane
          Genetic material enters the cell
          Multiplication using the substances of the cell
          Cell dies, new viruses get out
          Who are They?
Origin of the viruses:
          Macromolecular systems escaped from ancient cells
          Can not work without living cells
Main Groups
Plant viruses:
          Tobacco mosaic
Animal viruses:
          Rabies
Human viruses
          AIDS, influenza, mumps
Bacteriophages
          Can infect bacteria (treatment!)
          Tobacco mosaic
          Mumps, AIDS
          Bacteriophages
Bacteria
Procariots: no real nucleus, genetic material is not surrounded by nuclear envelop (membrane)
Shape:
          Coccus: spherical
          Bacillus: stick
          Spirillum: twisted
          Structure
          Cytoplasm
          Cell membrane
          Genetic material: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) (ring-shaped, no nuclear envelop)
          Pilus (plazmanyúlvány), flagellum (ostor)
          Cell wall, capsule (tok)
Bacteriospore: to survive, not for reproduction
Toxin (méreganyag): is made by the bacterium, cause diseases and poisoning
Metabolism of bacteria
Autotrophs: use inorganic materials
          Photoautotrophs – energy from light
          Chemoautotrophs – energy from oxidation of anorganic materials
          Metabolism
Heterotrophs: use organic materials
          Parasites – materials from living organisms (cause diseases)
          Symbionts – living together, mutual benefits
          Saprotrophs: organic materials from died organisms
Reproduction
Asexual (ivartalan): one parent does it (no fertilization)
Sexual (ivaros): two parents, gametes, fertilization
          Cyanobacteria
          Photosynthesis: blue-green pigments
          Cell wall contains cellulose, too
          Live all over the world
Importance of bacteria
Breaking down:
          Pollution (water cleaning, biogas)
          Soil
          Fermentation (erjedés):
        Food industry (ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid)
        Pharmaceutical industry: antibiotics, enzymes
          Agriculture: feed, dung
          Importance of bacteria
Health:
          Symbionts: vitamin B in the gut, skin protecting (butter acid)
          Parasites: cause diseases:
        Pneumonia – tüdőgyulladás
        Plague – pestis
        Cholera – kolera
        Salmonellosis – szalmonella
        Syphilis - szifilisz
Protists
Eucaryotic cell: nucleus is surrounded by nuclear membrane
The cell contains different cell organs:
          Nucleus
          Cytoplasm
          Cell membrane
          Flagellum, cilia
          Endoplasmic reticulum (membrane)
          Chloroplast
          Mitochondrium
          Golgi apparatus
          Endosymbiotic theory
          Cell organs: an ancient prokaryotic cell annexed other prokaryots
Forms of the organization
Sharing the tasks
          Cell association: no
          Thalloid: sometimes, partially
          Tissued: total and permanent
Direction of the dividing:
          Line: 1 direction
          Lamina: 2 directions
          Body: 3 directions
Moving
Pseudopodia (álláb): amoeba
Flagellum
Cilia
Nutrition
Autotrophs: photosynthesis (water, CO2 gets in by diffusion)
Heterotrophs:
          Paramaecium (papucsállatka): cytostoma (cell mouth) – vesicle – enzymes get in (digestion) – absorption - getting waste out by exocytosis
          Amoeba: endocytosis
Excretion
Paramaecium: with contractile vacuole
Reproduction
Asexual: no gametes, no fertilization, splitting by mitosis – offsprings are clones
          Cell division
          Budding (bimbózás): hydra
Sexual: 2 gametes fuse during fertilization
          Copulatio: total fusion – cell division (meiosis), e. g. amoeba
          Conjugatio: temporary fusion – e. g. Paramaecium
Classification of Protists
Flagellata (ostorosok)
Euglena (mixotroph)
Sarcodina (állábasok)
          Amoeba
          Nummulites
Ciliata (csillósok)
          Paramaecium
          Harangállatka (Vorticella)
Algae
          Kovamoszatok (Bacillariophyta)
          Barnamoszatok (pl. Sargassum)
          Vörösmoszatok (agar-agar táptalaj)
          Zöldmoszatok
Green algae (Chlorophyta)
Ancestors of the multicellular plants
Chlorophyll, starch
          Járommoszatok (Closterium)
          Csillárkamoszatok
          Fecskemoszatok
          Importance of Protists
          Food for others
          Water cleaning
          Parasites (diseases, epidemics)
          Saprotrophs: mineralization (ásványosodás, szerves anyagok szervetlenné alakítása)
          Protists with shell (külső váz): rocks (limestone, flint-stone)